"We are what we repeatedly do. Excellence, then, is not an act, but a habit." --Aristotle

Address any questions or comments regarding this newsletter to the individual authors listed after each article or to its editor, Rick Weinzierl, 217-333-6651, weinzier@illinois.edu. To receive e-mail notification of new postings of this newsletter, call or write the same number or address.

In This Issue:

Upcoming Programs

Regional Updates (from southern and western Illinois))

For Fruit and Vegetable Growers (brown marmorated stink bug))

Fruit Production and Pest Management (European red mite, updates on oriental fruit moth and codling moth)

Vegetable Production and Pest Management (corn earworm)

MarketMaker ("My Connections" feature)

University of Illinois Extension educators and specialists in fruit and vegetable production and pest management

Upcoming Programs

Regional Updates

In southern Illinois ... the region got a much needed rain last week, but it's time for another. As with much of the state, the southern region continues to run dry and temperatures have been running well above average for this time of year. 'Garnet Beauty' peaches came on the market early the second week of June and 'Redhaven' is coming in harvest now. Size and color development is good. Apples are sizing well, and like other fruit crops they are running about two weeks early. Early harvest of blackberries has started.

Please note that my office is moving to a new location. My email will remain the same but my office phone number will change. The move will start on June 25th and continue throughout the week. If you need to contact me next week, email will be the most reliable. As soon as I know the new phone number, it will be posted and announced in the newsletter.

Elizabeth Wahle (618-344-4230; wahle@illinois.edu)

In western Illinois ... the calendar indicates that summer just started, but conditions have been summer-like for a month, with high temperatures and little rain. The soil moisture situation today is a mixed bag over the area. From May 3 to Father's Day weekend, little to no precipitation fell (the area received less than one inch of rainfall). However, during Father’s Day weekend some much anticipated rainfall occurred. We received amounts ranging from less than .3 inch to more than 3 inches. Those receiving the higher amounts are still smiling. Unfortunately there just aren’t enough of them!  Those that did receive beneficial rainfall, and did not have irrigation, have seen a marked increase in the vigor and condition of crops.

For vegetable and fruit growers, those with the ability to irrigate have a good crop. Some of those without that ability still have seeds in dry soil waiting for moisture to germinate ... and they’ve been sitting in dry soils for a number of weeks. Crop conditions continue to deteriorate in non-irrigated vegetables.

Harvest of tomatoes and peppers from high tunnels has begun, and the crop looks to be a good one. Several have commented on the great looking and early yielding green peppers. Field harvest of green beans, sweet corn, potatoes, and other "summer" crops has begun. The crop condition has been influenced by soil moisture. Those on higher organic matter soils are in much better shape than those on lower organic matter soils. Harvest of the cool-season vegetables (broccoli, cauliflower, cabbage, greens, etc.) is winding down or stopped.

Primocane blackberry (unmowed) harvest is winding down. Red raspberry harvest is still ongoing. Early blueberry varieties are on the downhill side of harvest, and mid-maturity ones are continuing. Any lack of water is influencing yields of these berry crops. Early peach varieties are sizing rapidly.

Japanese beetles became apparent about 2 weeks ago and western corn rootworm adults have emerged as well. Corn earworm moth counts in the immediate Quincy area have been variable throughout June, with counts in the mid 20's daily (wire Heliothis trap) early in the month. The past week very few are being captured.

Mike Roegge (217-223-8380; roeggem@illinois.edu)

For Fruit and Vegetable Growers

Brown Marmorated Stink Bug

Just a brief update and reminder ... we still have no confirmed field infestations of brown marmorated stink bug in Illinois, and there is no reason to apply insecticides to fruit or vegetable crops to prevent damage from this pest. It is, however, a creature that everyone should be on the lookout for as the season progresses. Eventually, be it 2012, 2013, or further into the future, it will become established in Illinois.

Remember too that there are many native and established stink bug species in the U.S., and a number of the brown ones look a lot like the brown marmorated stink bug. The pictures below illustrate the characteristics that can be used to distinguish brown marmorated stink bug from other stink bugs, but for everyone who has not devoted (or wasted) at least a few years of life to entomology, the key step to confirming the identity of brown marmorated stink bug in Illinois remains simple -- collect the specimens, put them in a pill bottle or other crush-proof container, and send them to me ... Rick Weinzierl, Department of Crop Sciences, 1102 South Goodwin Avenue, Urbana, IL 61801.

Four common stink bugs that are not brown marmorated stink bug: Top left: Euschistus servus; top right: Euschistus tristigmus (photos from the University of Georgia). Bottom left: Euschistus variolarius (Oklahoma Panhandle State University); bottom right: spined soldier bug, Podisus maculiventris, a predaceous stink bug (photo by Ric Bessin, University of Kentucky).

Brown marmorated stink bug adult (left -- photo by J. Wildonger, USDA) and nymph (right -- photo from Michigan State University).

Rick Weinzierl (217-244-2126; weinzier@illinois.edu)

Fruit Production and Pest Management

European Red Mite in Apples

Earlier this week I saw European red mite infestations at near-threshold levels at a couple of locations in southwestern Illinois. Recent weather conditions and the forecast for the next couple of weeks make it likely that European red mites may be a problem elsewhere as well.

European red mite is often the poster child for illustrating the idea of a "secondary pest" ... an insect or related arthropod that is a pest only because insecticides have killed its natural enemies and allowed it to reach densities that would not occur under previous levels of natural biotic control. It is most often a problem in apples, but it also may infest peaches, other stone fruits, grapes, and brambles (raspberries and blackberries).

Left: European red mite eggs on bark (Virginia Tech.); right: European red mite adult. (Univ. of California)

European red mites overwinter as eggs, exposed on the surface of twigs. They begin hatching as apple trees begin to bloom, and they develop from egg to adult in 10 to 25 days. Six to eight generations develop each season. Immature stages and adults rasp away the leaf epidermis and feed on plant sap, causing leaves to turn yellow, bronze, or brown. Where leaves are damaged or drop, photosynthesis is reduced, fruit sizing is diminished, and sunburn of fruit may occur.

European red mite management:

Rick Weinzierl (217-244-2126; weinzier@illinois.edu)

Notes on Oriental Fruit Moth and Codling Moth

Oriental fruit moth third generation flight should be underway in southern Illinois. Second generation flight is ending in central Illinois, and third generation flight is likely to begin by early July. Second-generation flight has continued to be very light at the University of Illinois orchard at Urbana, but fruit and shoot damage was evident in southwestern Illinois orchards earlier this week.

OFM damage to a shoot (left) and fruits (right). (Right-hand photo from University of Idaho.)

Oriental Fruit Moth


Biofix Date

Degree-days (base 45 F) from biofix through June 20

Degree-days (base 45 F) estimated through June 27

Degree-days (base 45 F) estimated through July 4


March 18





March 18





March 24




Codling moth:  Degree-day accumulations based on a 50-degree F developmental threshold are summarized below, along with estimates of the status of this insect at locations ranging from southern to northern Illinois.

Codling Moth


Biofix Date

Degree-days (base 50 F) from biofix through June 20

Degree-days (base 50 F) estimated through June 27

Degree-days (base 50 F) estimated through July 4


March 30





March 25





April 25





May 10




Some reference points for degree-days and codling moth development ...

Rick Weinzierl (217-244-2126; weinzier@illinois.edu)

Freeze Damage Versus Catfacing

The peaches on the left exhibit freeze injury; the peach on the right exhibits catfacing caused by plant bugs or stink bugs.

Just for the record ... some odd-looking freeze damage to peaches may be confused with catfacing caused by plant bugs and stink bugs. Let's hope we don't see the freeze damage again next year, but those who have peaches with this damage this year, be sure not to react by stepping up a spray program against catfacing insects next year ... they are not the cause of the distortions.

Rick Weinzierl (217-244-2126; weinzier@illinois.edu)

Vegetable Production and Pest Management

Corn Earworm

Mike Roegge mentioned that corn earworm moth counts in his pheromone trap in the Quincy area have been somewhat variable over the past few weeks. Although every commercial sweet corn and tomato grower in Illinois should be operating his or her own pheromone trap for this insect, results of trapping conducted at a few locations around the state are posted on the North Central IPM PIPE (Pest Information Platform for Extension and Education) website --

http://apps.csi.iastate.edu/pipe/?c=entry&a=view&id=68 .

A few overall reminders and specific recommendations ...

The corn earworm is generally the most serious pest of sweet corn in Illinois (though European corn borer, and fall armyworm, and other direct pests also attack the crop), and it also infests tomatoes, peppers, and green beans (as well as several other crops). It may overwinter as a pupa in light soils in southern and southwestern Illinois (and along the Illinois River in west-central Illinois), and this year its overwintering success appears to have been greater than usual due to the mild winter. It also migrates into the state from the south each season. Moths are almost always active in the Collinsville area by late May and early June, but in much of the state the period of first activity (and the first need to control them) can vary from June through August. Although control may be necessary in one portion of the state at a particular time, it may be unnecessary in many other locations. Consequently, it really is essential to operate an earworm trap and determine spray needs based on moth captures. Adults lay eggs directly on the silks of corn, and newly hatched larvae move directly down the silk channel to feed on the tip of the developing ear. For insecticides to control this insect, they must be on the silks that the larva contacts as it moves into the ear, and they must be applied repeatedly to cover new silk growth.

Upper left: corn earworm adult Kansas Dept. of Agric.); upper right: eggs on silks (Cornell Univ.); lower left: larva on ear tip (Univ. of Illinois); lower right: "Hartstack" pheromone trap used to monitor flights (Univ. of Illinois).

Again, all sweet corn and tomato growers should use Hartstack pheromone traps to determine the timing of moth flights and the need for insecticide applications. Bait the trap with Hercon "zealures," and replace the lure with a new one every 2 weeks. See the text below for suppliers. Earworm control is necessary when moth flight is ongoing and fresh silks are present. If traps are catching even a few moths when silking begins, sprays should be applied within 2 days after first silk -- insecticide residues must be on the silks to kill larvae immediately after they hatch from eggs and before they enter the silk channel.

Insecticides: Pyrethroids (particularly Baythroid, Brigade, Hero, Mustang Max, Warrior, and the generics that contain the same active ingredients) have been effective for earworm control, but populations of corn earworm that migrate into the region every year show varying levels of resistance to pyrethroids. The older pyrethroids Ambush, Pounce, and Asana (and their generics) are not as effective as the newer products just mentioned. Highly effective alternatives to pyrethroids include Belt, Coragen, and Radiant, but these insecticides do not control corn rootworm beetles that may clip silks and prevent pollination. Limited data indicate that combining a pyrethroid with one of these alternatives (using a low to middle rate within the label-instructed range for each) may be most effective. A pre-mix that contains such a mixture is Voliam Xpress -- it contains the active ingredients found in Warrior and Coragen. Tank-mixing a pyrethroid with Sevin, Lannate, or Larvin provides some benefit but is not likely to be as effective as tank-mixes of one of the newer pyrethroids with Belt, Coragen, or Radiant or the premix sold as Voliam Xpress. For organic growers, Entrust is the most effective OMRI-approved insecticide for corn earworm.

Spray intervals: When moth flight is heavy (greater than 50-100 moths per trap per night) and temperatures are high (upper 60s at night, 90 and above during the day), the spray interval for high levels of control needed in fresh-market sweet corn for the pyrethroids listed above and for Belt, Coragen, or Radiant (or tank mixes or premixes) should be no longer than 3 days and as short as 2 days (with a maximum interval of 2 days for Entrust). When moth counts are lower (3-25 per night) and the daily average temperatures (max + min divided by 2) are in the low 70s or lower, the interval for the pyrethroids listed above, Belt, Coragen, or Radiant (or tank mixes or premixes) might be increased to 4 days, and for Entrust to 3 days. The demands and expectations of your customers may influence these guidelines ... if you need 95 percent worm-free corn, keep the spray intervals on the short end of the ranges listed above. It is NOT useful to apply insecticides for earworm control until silking begins because significant egg-laying in corn begins only after silks are present.

Traps and lures:The Hartstack trap can be purchased from Bob Poppe, Route 1, Box 33, Lexington, IL, 61753 (309-275-5477). Lures can be purchased from Great Lakes IPM (800-235-0285; http://www.greatlakesipm.com/).

The wire Hartstack trap is not cheap ... think in the $250 range for the trap plus shipping, and think higher numbers if the traps must be shipped a long way. But before you let the price tag make you baulk, consider ...

Rick Weinzierl (217-244-2126; weinzier@illinois.edu)


MarketMaker now has a new "My Connections" feature. "My Connections" lets you connect to other businesses with which you work. Use "My Connections" to connect with the farmers markets where you sell your produce, the retailers that carry your produce, or other local food businesses that are important to your operation. These businesses will appear on your profile as a "Business Connection" (ex: connecting to a farmers market where you sell will enable a user to go directly to the market's profile page to find dates/times of operation.)

To make a connection, log into your account and select the "My Connections" tab. Type in the name of a MarketMaker business you would like to connect with, and then click to add that business. An email is sent to the business to inform them of your connection.

Add as many businesses as you like. Businesses you connect with on MarketMaker appear on your business's detail page.

Lori Dalfonso (309-792-2577; dalfonso@illinois.edu)

Less Seriously ...

... my mother taught me

My mother taught me TO APPRECIATE A JOB WELL DONE ... "If you're going to kill each other, do it outside. I just finished cleaning."

My mother taught me RELIGION ... "You better pray that will come out of the carpet."

My mother taught me LOGIC ... "Because I said so, that's why."

My mother taught me MORE LOGIC ... "If you fall out of that swing and break your neck, you're not going to the store with me."

My mother taught me IRONY ... "Keep crying, and I'll give you something to cry about."

My mother taught me about the science of OSMOSIS ... "Shut your mouth and eat your supper."

My mother taught me about CONTORTIONISM ... "Will you look at that dirt on the back of your neck!"

My mother taught me STAMINA ... "You'll sit there until all that spinach is gone."

My mother taught me ANTICIPATION ... "Just wait until we get home."

My mother taught me MEDICAL SCIENCE ... "If you don't stop crossing your eyes, they are going to get stuck that way."

My mother taught me GENETICS ... "You're just like your father."

My mother taught me about JUSTICE ... "One day you'll have kids, and I hope they turn out just like you!"

My mother taught me about CHOICE ... "Do you want me to stop this car?"

University of Illinois Extension Specialists in Fruit and Vegetable Production & Pest Management

Extension Educators – Local Food Systems and Small Farms

Bronwyn Aly, Gallatin, Hamilton, Hardin, Pope, Saline, and White counties



Katie Bell, Franklin, Jackson, Perry, Randolph, & Williamson counties



Sarah Farley, Lake & McHenry counties



Nick Frillman, Woodford, Livingston, & McLean counties



Laurie George, Bond, Clinton, Jefferson, Marion, & Washington counties



Zachary Grant, Cook County



Doug Gucker, DeWitt, Macon, and Piatt counties



Erin Harper, Champaign, Ford, Iroquois, and Vermillion counties



Grace Margherio, Jackie Joyner-Kersee Center, St. Clair County



Grant McCarty, Jo Daviess, Stephenson, and Winnebago counties



Katie Parker, Adams, Brown, Hancock, Pike and Schuyler counties



Kathryn Pereira, Cook County



James Theuri, Grundy, Kankakee, and Will counties



Extension Educators – Horticulture

Chris Enroth, Henderson, Knox, McDonough, and Warren counties



Richard Hentschel, DuPage, Kane, and Kendall counties



Andrew Holsinger, Christian, Jersey, Macoupin, & Montgomery counties



Extension Educators - Commercial Agriculture

Elizabeth Wahle, Fruit & Vegetable Production



Nathan Johanning, Madison, Monroe & St. Clair counties



Campus-based  Extension Specialists

Kacie Athey, Entomology



Mohammad Babadoost, Plant Pathology